Publications

The Berkman Center has established the premier series of scholarly publications on matters related to the Internet, law, and society, known as the Berkman Publication Series, which is jointly published with the Social Science Research Network (SSRN).

Below is a selected list of these works, which includes scholarly papers as well as books, written by Berkman faculty and fellows. To be notified when new reports are added to this list, sign up for our reports release email list.

(For additional writings and blog posts from Berkman community members and projects, which are not included in this series, see our aggregated community blog feed.)

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Russia, Ukraine, and the West

Social Media Sentiment in the Euromaidan Protests

"Russia, Ukraine, and the West: Social Media Sentiment in the Euromaidan Protests," authored by Bruce Etling, is the fourth paper in the Internet Monitor special reports series, which focuses on key events and new developments in Internet freedom. The paper analyzes content from a range of online Russian- and English-language sources, including both social media (Facebook, Twitter, and forums) and traditional media, to explore sentiment in the online conversation about the Euromaidan protests in Ukraine last winter.

Authored by
  • Bruce Etling

30 Sep 2014

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The Responsive City: Engaging Communities Through Data-Smart Governance

New book co-authored by Susan Crawford

The Responsive City is a compelling guide to civic engagement and governance in the digital age that will help municipal leaders link important breakthroughs in technology and data analytics with age-old lessons of small-group community input to create more agile, competitive and economically resilient cities. The book is co-authored by Professor Stephen Goldsmith, director of Data-Smart City Solutions at Harvard Kennedy School, and Professor Susan Crawford, co-director of Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg penned the book’s foreword.

Authored by
  • Susan Crawford

2 Sep 2014

Integrating Approaches to Privacy across the Research Lifecycle: Long-term Longitudinal Studies

This paper explores interdisciplinary approaches to privacy in long-term longitudinal studies of human subjects. Long-term longitudinal studies collect, at multiple points over a long period of time, highly-specific and often sensitive data describing the health, socioeconomic, or behavioral characteristics of human subjects.

Authored by
  • Urs Gasser
  • David O'Brien
  • Alexandra Wood

3 Aug 2014

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Who Gets a Press Pass?

Media Credentialing Practices in the United States

This study, the first of its kind to perform a quantitative examination of media credentialing in the United States, surveys the experience of journalists throughout the country in their efforts to obtain media credentials from different types of credentialing organizations from 2008 to 2013.

Authored by
  • Jeffrey Hermes
  • Reynol Junco
  • Osman Tolga Aricak
  • John Wihbey

4 Jun 2014

Framing the Law & Policy Picture: A Snapshot of K-12 Cloud-Based Ed Tech & Student Privacy in Early 2014

This paper provides a snapshot of key aspects of a diverse—and heated—law, policy, and implementation debate that is taking place in the rapidly evolving cloud-based ed tech landscape as of early 2014. It aims to provide policy and decision-makers with greater information about and clarity around the avenues available in evaluating privacy options.

Authored by
  • Urs Gasser
  • Alicia Solow-Niederman
  • Leah Plunkett

2 Jun 2014

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Community Fiber in Washington, D.C., Seattle, WA, and San Francisco, CA

Developments and Lessons Learned

This report provides detailed accounts of planning carried out in connection with community fiber networks in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, CA, and Seattle, WA. It includes information about existing fiber assets that the cities identified, funding mechanisms that were considered, and roadblocks that were encountered. Our hope is that this report will be helpful to other cities that are considering launching fiber optic networks.

Authored by
  • Susan Crawford
  • John Connolly
  • Melissa Nally
  • Travis West

27 May 2014

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Blogs as an Alternative Public Sphere

The Role of Blogs, Mainstream Media, and TV in Russia’s Media Ecology

"Blogs as an Alternative Public Sphere: The Role of Blogs, Mainstream Media, and TV in Russia’s Media Ecology," authored by Bruce Etling, Hal Roberts, and Robert Faris, is the third paper in the Internet Monitor special report series, which focuses on key events and new developments in Internet freedom. The paper uses data collected from thousands of blogs, mainstream media, and TV sources to examine the role of Russian blogs within Russia's media ecosystem.

Authored by
  • Bruce Etling
  • Rob Faris
  • Hal Roberts

28 Apr 2014

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Governments and Cloud Computing: Roles, Approaches, and Policy Considerations

In this paper, Urs Gasser and David O'Brien synthesize findings from a multi-year cloud computing research initiative led by the Berkman Center in close collaboration with the NEXA Center for Internet & Society (Italy), Keio University (Japan), the Research Center for Information Law (Switzerland), the NCCR Trade Regulation project on digital technologies and trade governance (Switzerland), and the participants at our Cloud Computing Workshop series held in Cambridge, MA, Washington, DC, and Keio University in Japan.

Authored by
  • Urs Gasser
  • David O'Brien

17 Mar 2014

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K-12 Edtech Cloud Service Inventory

Created for and informed by the co-organized Berkman Center and Consortium for School Networking working meeting on November 19, 2013, this document aims to provide individuals with a non-technological background with a more concrete survey of the kinds of cloud computing technologies (categorized by the affordances each offers) that may be adopted in K-12 educational contexts.

Authored by
  • Alicia Solow-Niederman

15 Jan 2014

Student Privacy and Cloud Computing at the District Level: Next Steps and Key Issues

This report offers recommended next steps and prioritized open issues in the K-12 educational technology (edtech) space, with a special emphasis on two topics: (1) law and policy and (2) norms, values, attitudes, and practices, as well as an overarching eye to opportunities for collaboration. It builds from and reflects upon a conversation co-organized by the the Berkman Center for Internet & Society’s Student Privacy Initiative and the Consortium for School Networking, at which policymakers and educational technology thought leaders came together to emphasize the view “on the ground” as seen from the district level and identify specific resources for potential inclusion in a toolkit for diverse stakeholders considering the adoption and impact of cloud technologies in K-12 educational contexts.

Authored by
  • Urs Gasser
  • Alicia Solow-Niederman
  • Leah Plunkett

15 Jan 2014

Youth Perspectives on Tech in Schools: From Mobile Devices to Restrictions and Monitoring

This research brief, prepared by the Berkman Center’s Youth and Media project for the co-organized Berkman Center and Consortium for School Networking working meeting on student privacy and cloud computing, presents empirical data on student privacy attitudes drawn from a series of focus groups conducted across the country between February and August 2013.

15 Jan 2014

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Bringing Municipal High-Speed Internet Access to Leverett, Massachusetts

This report provides a detailed account of the development of LeverettNet, Leverett, Massachusetts’ municipal fiber optic network. It includes information about the extensive planning and outreach activities carried out by Leverett from 2011 through 2013, as well as details of the technical and operational characteristics of LeverettNet. Leverett has been successful in mobilizing support for LeverettNet, and the network is being built on schedule with full deployment planned for 2014. Our hope is that this report will be helpful to other cities that are considering launching fiber optic networks.

Authored by
  • Susan Crawford
  • Robyn Mohr

16 Dec 2013

Internet Monitor 2013

Reflections on the Digital World

Internet Monitor 2013: Reflections on the Digital World, the Internet Monitor project's first-ever annual report, is a collection of essays from roughly two dozen experts around the world, including Ron Deibert, Malavika Jayaram, Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Molly Sauter, Bruce Schneier, Ashkan Soltani, and Zeynep Tufekci, among others.

11 Dec 2013

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Measuring Internet Activity

A (Selective) Review of Methods and Metrics

"Measuring Internet Activity: A (Selective) Review of Methods and Metrics," authored by Robert Faris and Rebekah Heacock, explores current efforts to measure digital activity within three areas: infrastructure and access, control, and content and communities.

Authored by
  • Rob Faris
  • Rebekah Heacock Jones

14 Nov 2013

Privacy and Children's Data

An Overview of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

This overview of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) was produced by Harvard Law School's Cyberlaw Clinic in advance of the Student Privacy Initiative's April 2013 workshop, "Student Privacy in the Cloud Computing Ecosystem."

Authored by
  • Christopher Bavitz
  • Dalia Topelson Ritvo
  • Ritu Gupta
  • Irina Oberman

13 Nov 2013

Student Privacy in the Cloud Computing Ecosystem

State of Play & Potential Paths Forward

This report draws from ongoing Student Privacy Initiative research as well as participant inputs from an April 2013 exploratory workshop, "Student Privacy in the Cloud Computing Ecosystem," to begin to map the current landscape and connect the often-siloed perspectives of educational institutions, students, parents, and administrators as well as cloud service providers and policy makers.

Authored by
  • Caroline Nolan
  • Urs Gasser
  • Alicia Solow-Niederman

13 Nov 2013

Why We Engage: How Theories of Human Behavior Contribute to Our Understanding of Civic Engagement in a Digital Era

We present this literature review as a means of exploring the intersection of theories of human behavior with the motivations for and benefits of engaging in civic life. We bring together literature from behavioral economics, sociology, psychology and communication studies to reveal how civic actors, institutions, and decision-making processes have been traditionally understood, and how emerging media tools and practices are forcing their reconsideration.

Authored by
  • Eric Gordon
  • Jesse Baldwin-Philippi
  • Martina Balestra

27 Oct 2013

Teens and Mobile Apps Privacy

58% of American teens have downloaded an app to a cell phone or tablet. More than half of teen apps users have avoided an app due to concerns about sharing their personal information—and girls are especially likely to take steps to protect their location data.

22 Aug 2013

Interoperability Case Study: From Crowdsourcing Potholes to Community Policing

Applying Interoperability Theory to Analyze the Expansion of “Open311”

Following the four primary applications of interoperability theory laid out by Palfrey and Gasser, this paper is organized into five Parts: (1) Part One introduces the topic; (2) Part Two establishes interop as “high level theory,” considering its utility both as a frame and an organizing principle; (3) Part Three utilizes interop as a descriptive lens to examine the emergence of 311 (a precursor platform) and Open311 in recent years; (4) Part Four applies interop as a predictive tool to consider emerging issues as Open311 expands; and (5) Part Five draws on interop as a normative device to conclude that while Open311 is moving toward optimal levels of data and technological interoperability, efforts must now be made to increase human and institutional interop; policymakers should employ both regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms to do so.

Authored by
  • Manik Suri

15 Aug 2013

Where Teens Seek Online Privacy Advice

Many teens ages 12-17 report that they usually figure out how to manage content sharing and privacy settings on their own. Focus group interviews with teens suggest that for their day-to-day privacy management, teens are guided through their choices in the app or platform when they sign up, or find answers through their own searching and use of their preferred platform.

14 Aug 2013

Citizen-Centered Governance: The Mayor's Office of New Urban Mechanics and the Evolution of CRM in Boston

During the summer of 2013, in anticipation of Mayor Menino's retirement in January 2014, Prof. Susan Crawford and Project Assistant Dana Walters carried out a case study examining the ongoing evolution of the Boston Mayor's Hotline into a platform for civic engagement.

Authored by
  • Susan Crawford
  • Dana Walters

30 Jul 2013

Social Mobilization and the Networked Public Sphere: Mapping the SOPA-PIPA Debate

This paper uses a new set of online research tools to develop a detailed study of the public debate over proposed legislation in the United States designed to give prosecutors and copyright holders new tools to pursue suspected online copyright violations. For this study, we compiled, mapped, and analyzed a set of 9,757 stories relevant to the COICA-SOPA-PIPA debate from September 2010 through the end of January 2012 using Media Cloud, an open source tool created at the Berkman Center to allow quantitative analysis of a large number of online media sources. This study applies a mixed-methods approach by combining text and link analysis with human coding and informal interviews to map the evolution of the controversy over time and to analyze the mobilization, roles, and interactions of various actors.

Authored by
  • Yochai Benkler
  • Bruce Etling
  • Rob Faris
  • Hal Roberts
  • Alicia Solow-Niederman

25 Jul 2013

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Rationing the Digital

The Policy and Politics of Internet Use in Cuba Today

"Rationing the Digital: The Policy and Politics of Internet Use in Cuba Today," authored by Internet Monitor contributor Ellery Roberts Biddle, explores Cuba's complex economy of Internet connectivity, how digital expression is regulated in the country, and how recent developments in infrastructure might change the shape of access and use on the island:

16 Jul 2013

Interoperability Case Study: The European Union as an Institutional Design for Legal Interoperability

This case study is part of an ongoing series developed in support of a larger text on interoperability by John Palfrey and Urs Gasser Interop: The Promise and Perils of Highly Interconnected Systems (Basic Books, June 2012). It looks into Electronic Data Interchange interoperability.

Authored by
  • Félix Tréguer

23 Jun 2013

Teens, Social Media, and Privacy

Teens are sharing more information about themselves on social media sites than they have in the past, but they are also taking a variety of technical and non-technical steps to manage the privacy of that information. Despite taking these privacy-protective actions, teen social media users do not express a high level of concern about third-parties (such as businesses or advertisers) accessing their data; just 9% say they are “very” concerned.

21 May 2013

Teens and Technology 2013

Smartphone adoption among American teens has increased substantially and mobile access to the internet is pervasive. One in four teens are “cell-mostly” internet users, who say they mostly go online using their phone and not using some other device such as a desktop or laptop computer.

13 Mar 2013

Copyright For Librarians

Copyright for Librarians" (CFL) is an online open curriculum on copyright law that was developed jointly with Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet and Society. Re-designed as a brand new textbook, "Copyright for Librarians: the essential handbook" can be used as a stand-alone resource or as an adjunct to the online version which contains additional links and references for students who wish to pursue any topic in greater depth.

11 Jan 2013

Youth Organizations and Positive Development: Lessons Learned from a Century of Girl Scouting

Since its inception in 2000, the Girl Scout Research Institute has employed a research-to-action approach so that insights from our work with girls and young women can directly inform Girl Scouts of the USA’s program and policy development, as well as impact the larger youth development field. In the last decade, GSRI’s research and evaluation work has touched numerous organizations in the public and private spheres, making a practical impact on the lives of youth and providing other organizations with evidence needed to make a case for their own work.

17 Dec 2012

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