Wikipedia 10K Redux by Reagle from Starling archive. Bugs abound!!!
MPPC stands for Motion Picture Patents Company, also known as the EdisonTrust, also known as the FirstOligopoly. It was a trust of all the major film companies and the biggest supplier of raw film, EastmanKodak. The reason for it's decline are manifold. The most important ones are the misjudgement of consumer interest and the quick rise of the so-called IndependentS, who later became the SecondOligopoly. There were also US Supreme Court decisions, in particular the one in 1912, which cancelled the patent on raw film, the one in 1915, which cancelled all MPPC patents and the ShermanAntitrustAct in 1917, which ended the oligopoly, but at that time, the MPPC was already defeated.