Instructors: Jean Camp and Jonathan Zittrain
Monday / Wednesday 4:00 - 5:30 p.m.
Weiner Auditorium, Taubman, KSG
Last Updated: 26 April 2000 (11:15 a.m.)
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The Internet had an unusual and deliberate birth. Its development is a fascinating story of technology, politics and inspiration. Dave Clark, one of the fathers of the Internet, will tell that story.
Dr. Dave Clark, Senior Research Scientist, Advanced Network Architecture Group, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
-Sharon E. Gillett, MIT & Mitchell Kapor, Kapor Enterprises on what is the Internet
-University Corporation For Advanced Internet
-The Internet Engineering Task Force homepage
-A tutorial on the Internet.
-Yahoo! has an excellent section on Internet history
-Barry M. Leiner et al. A Brief History of the Internet
-Robert H. Zakon, Hobbes' Internet Timeline v3.Zen and the Art of the Internet also available as a text for money if one finds it very interesting. Read as much as you need to.
-Next Generation Internet Initiative
(February 7 and 9)
There is a conflict between speech and intellectual property, and between my right to read anonymously and the author's right to be paid. Are these inherent conflicts? How might we err, and how dangerous might that be, and to whom?
-Julie Cohen "Some
Reflections on Copyright Management Systems and Laws Designed to Protect Them," 12
Berkeley Tech. L.J. 161 (1997).
-Mark Stefik. Shifting the Possible: How Trusted Systems and Digital Property Rights Challenge Us to Rethink Digital Publishing, 12 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 137 (1997).
-John Perry Barlow. The Economy of Ideas
-Julie Cohen. The Right to
-Mark Stefik. Trusted Systems. Scientific American.
-League for Programming Freedom. Against Software Patents (CACM 1/92)
-Heckel "Debunking the software patent myths ( CACM 6/92)
-Pam Samuelson: Copyright and Fair Use in the Digital Age
-Finding a Balance, the Executive Summary
-Introduction to patenting
-17 U.S.C. 107, Fair Use
-NOTs on the Net: Early History of NOTs
-Jonathan Band, Digital Millennium Copyright Act Analysis (especially Title I).
-17 USC ch. 10, Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media (browse online)
-Look at the DVD Story in this case Jon Johansen made it possible to play DVDs on machines using the Linux operating system -- previously only Windows users could use the player provided. He is accused of breaking intellectual property protection. This case will be interesting as it moves forward.
-Joe Nickell, Samples Silence Negativeland, WiredNews, Sept. 1, 1998.
-Listen to "U2/Negativeland: The Forbidden Single"
-Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios, Inc. 464 U.S. 417 (1984).
-Charles C.Mann.Who Will Own Your Next Good Idea?The Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 1998.
-Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Copyright, Atlantic Unbound roundtable, Sept. 1998. (browse online)
-Courtney Macavinta Scientologists in Trademark Dispute.
(February 14 and 16)
Privacy is the right to be let alone, rights of seclusion, and the right to act without surveillance (rights of autonomy).
Simson Garfinkel, author of "The Death of Privacy"
-Flood Control on the Information Ocean: Living With Anonymity, Digital Cash, and Distributed Databases
-Larry Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Chapter 11: Privacy (pp.
142-163). Please either buy the book or read it on reserve at the KSG or HLS
librairies. Buy it here if you wish: <http://code-is-law.org/getit.html>.
-Solveig Singleton, Privacy as Censorship: A Skeptical View of Proposals to Regulate Privacy in the Private Sector, Cato Policy Analysis No. 295, January 22, 1998.
-FTC, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress, June 1998, parts I &V (skim).
-Justin Boyan. I Can See You
-FTC Press Release on the Settlement with Geocities
-FTC Letter on KidsCom
-KidsCom site (be sure to read the privacy statement)
-P3P and Privacy on the Web FAQ
-Connie Guglielmo & Will Rodger, "Can Net Privacy Coexist with E-Commerce?," Interactive Week Online, Dec. 17, 1997
-Joel R. Reidenberg, Lex Infomatica, 76 Tex. L. Rev. 553 (1997).
-Reno v. ACLU
-Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)
-Electronic Frontier Foundation
-Free Speech Now
-Center for Democracy and Technology
-EPIC Web site
-The Legal Challenge to the Child Online Protection Act: Summary
-Opinion of the court granting a preliminary injunction against the Child Online Protection Act
(February 23 - Jean Camp)
- A. Michael Froomkin. The Metaphor is the Key:
Cryptography, The Clipper Chip, and The Constitution. Technical Appendix.
- Jean Camp. Trust and Risk in Internet Commerce. Chapter 3
- Jean Camp. Trust and Risk in Internet Commerce. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5
(February 28 - Jean Camp)
Is wiretap a Federal right or a passing technological anomaly? What is public key and how does it differ from private key? How does the Internet differ from the phone, cable TV, and broadcast networks. What part of that difference is critical for human freedom, and what elements are a risk to the common safety? The conflict between individual rights and societal security is continuing on the information infrastructure. One of the critical elements in this conflict is the role of encryption -- technology which prevents individuals other than a message recipient from intercepting a communication. IS this a fundamental freedom critical to autonomy or a tool for subversion even of the network infrastructure itself.
Infrastructure Protection and the Endangerment of Civil Liberties. An Assessment
Presidents Commission on Critical (PCCIP)
-Executive Summary from Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructures. The Report of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection
Note: It is very difficult to download only the Executive Summary so you have to download the entire thing as one pdf. The content most necessary for our discussion can be found in a subset of the pages. (pp 13-17; 37-40; 109-115; 120-128) for those not wishing to read the whole thing.
- Computer Science and
Telecommunications Board. Download the executive summary from the Nov 96 report,
Cryptography's Role in Securing the Information Society.
-Froomkin, The Metaphor is the Key: Cryptography, the Clipper Chip and the Constitution . Sections I A, B, and C1, Section II and III, (and the appendix if you need it)
-Tim May, The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto
-Consider the possibility of Flooding the Net: Availability attacks as speech
-What is a wiretap, a short description.
-See also the definitions from the privacy discussion
-An excellent bibliography, and not enough people use pink backgrounds
-David Brin, The Transparent Society, Wired, Dec. 1996.
-A really cool set of cyberpunk quotes and writing.
-Worms, Viruses, Trojan horses
-EPIC on Digital Telephony
(March 1 - Jonathan Zittrain)
-Zeran v. America Online, Inc.,
129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. 1997).
-United States v. Jake Baker and Arthur Gonda, 890 F. Supp. 1375 (E.D. Mich.1995)
-The Communications Decency Act of 1996 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Public Law No. 104-104, 110 Stat. 56 (1996)
-United States Constitution, First Amendment
(Mar 6 - Jean Camp)
It is often noted that the problems facing this generation of information technology, including privacy and issues of quality in journalism, also accompanied the introduction of the last generation of information technologies, i.e. lithography, portable photography, and affordable newsprint. It is less rarely noted that the problem of unacceptable content was also an issue in the nineteenth century. Today, on the verge of the information age is there risk of repeated the same errors. The conditions in society today parallel the conditions which enabled Comstock's success. The conditions conducive to Comtockery were the rise of a new rich and fundamental economic changes which together created uncertainty about the future for the middle class.
Or maybe it really is all about protecting the children.
-Global Iinternet Liberty Campaign. "Impact of Self-Regulation and Filtering on Human Rights to Freedom of Expression"
-CPSR Filtering FAQ
Filtering and Blocking
-SurfWatch Core Category Criteria
-Cyber Patrol Fact Sheet
-The Plain Facts About Internet Content Filtering, Cyber Sitter
-Frequently Asked Questions About Dotsafe Internet Access
-Hate Filter Frequently Asked Questions
-Brock N. Meeks & Declan McCullagh, Jacking in from the "Keys to the Kingdom" Port, CyberWire Dispatch (1996)
-Lawrence Lessig, Tyranny of the Infrastructure, Wired 5.07 (July 1997)
-Intel v. Hamidi - Tentative Ruling on Motion for Summary Judgement, April 28, 1999
-Carl S. Kaplan, Echoes of the Railroad Age in AOL Decision, Cyber
Law Journal, July 3, 1998 (free registration required).
-Blumenthal v. Drudge, 992 F.Supp. 44 (D.C.D.C. 1998).
-Judson Branam. Student with On-Line Fantasy Can't Go to Class Feb. 7, 1995.
-Red Lion Broad. Co. v. FCC. 395 U.S. 367 (1969).
-Turner Broad. v. FCC. 520 U.S. 180 (1997).
-Marsh v. Alabama. 326 U.S. 501 (1946).
-Compuserve Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, Inc. 962 F. Supp. 1015 (S.D. Oh. 1996).
-Cyber Promotions, Inc. v. America Online. 948 F. Supp. 436 (E.D. Pa. 1996).
-Amy Harmon Hacker Group Commandeers Times Web Site. The New York Times on the Web, Sept. 14, 1998. (Free registration required.)
-Electronic Disturbance Theater
-EDT Letter to Supporters
-Ben Elgin Online Barbie Hunt Draws Criticism, ZDNet, Nov. 26, 1997.
-The Distorted Barbie
-Jonathan Wallace. "CyberPatrol: The Friendly Censor"
-Letter from Morality in Media Opposing the Decision by CyberPatrol to Block the American Family Association Web Site On Grounds of "Intolerance"
-What Things Regulate Speech: CDA 2.0 v. Filtering (pdf file)
-Enough is Enough (browse online)
-Peacefire.org (browse online)
-Child Online Protection Act
-Library net filters violate free speech
-Parodies of Scientology Web Graphics
-Scientology home page
-White v. Samsung Electronics America.989 F.2d 1512 (9th Cir. 1993) (Kosinski, J., dissenting)
(Mar 8 - Jonathan Zittrain)
- Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Chapter 12:
"Free Speech," (pp. 164-85), which you should have purchased by now
or have found on reserve at either the KSG or HLS libraries. Be sure to
read carefully the passages on PICS (pp. 177-8). Also, you might recall
the first chapter assigned from Prof. Lessig's book, (on "Privacy",
pp. 142-63), which discusses the closely-related notion of P3P technologies.
-Memorandum Opinion, Mainstream Loudoun v. Loudoun County Library, U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Virginia, Case No. 97-2049-A. (November 23, 1998)
-Mainstream Loudoun v. Loudoun County Library, (Tech Law Journal Summary)
-Jonathan Zittrain The Rise and Fall of Sysopdom 10 Harv. J. L. Tech. 495 (1997)
of Education v. Pico
-ACLU Report on Filtering and Blocking entitled "Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning?"
-Reno v. ACLU (which was previously listed in Week 3 and to which Jonathan Zittrain has made reference several times in class)
(March 13 - Jonathan Zittrain)
Code to a legal mind is that which details what actions are possible in the analog world. Code to a technical mind is that which details what actions are possible in the digital world. At the trivial level, both are code because they are both pre-arranged sets of meanings assigned to particular symbols. Code and standards can govern as effectively as or even more effectively than the law. Who sets the standards for the Internet?
Scott Bradner, Senior Technical Consultant, Harvard University Information Systems and Office of the Provost; Area Director, Internet Engineering Task Force. IESG Member. ARIN trustee, ISOC Trustee and VP for Standards; ITU Liaison.
Joseph Reagle of the World Wide Web Consortium
(Link to website with Joseph Reagle's Notes)
-Scott Bradner, "The IETF"
(A chapter from Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution; you
do not have to read the whole book (unless you want to)).
- W3C Consortium
- Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Chapter 4: "Architectures of Control," (pp. 30-43).
- Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Chapters 1 - 3, (pp. 3-29).
(March 15 - Jean Camp)
-Vincent and Camp. "Standards as Governance."
and Standards (via Policy Gateway)
Note: To get to the section on Interoperability and Standards click "Browse the Policy Gateway - Short Version" and then select "Telecommunications Policy"
-Economics of Networks Internet Site at NYU.
-Interoperability and the Economics of Information Infrastructure (draft papers)
-New Domains And IANAs Role
(March 20 - Jean Camp)
The stock markets have recently sent open source companies to new and amazing highs. Perhaps even the mighty Microsoft perceives the stirrings of a potential threat. What is this open source? The readings will describe open source, and also free software. Where open source is about customer value and strategic business choices; free software is about human autonomy. Free software sometimes called libre to distinguish it from gratis, that is free as in free speech not free beer.
-The GPL Manifesto.
-Richard Stallman. The GNU Operating System and the Free Software Movement.
-Tim O'Reilly. Hardware Software and Infoware.
-Lawrence Lessig. Reclaiming the Commons.
-Linux Weekly News
(March 22 - Jonathan Zittrain)
Jonathan Zittrain, "The
Un-Microsoft Un-Remedy: Law Can Prevent the Problem That it Can't Patch Later,"
31 Connecticut L. Rev. 1361 (1999). This link will lead you to the .pdf
file of this paper, which you'll need to view using Adobe Acrobat.
- Industry Standard, "Microsoft, Feds enter final round"
- New York Times, "Closing Arguments Underscore Gap Between Microsoft and U.S." This link will lead you to the New York Times on-line; you may need to sign in for free with the New York Times to access this article. If you do not wish to do so, please look it up on Lexis-Nexis or in hardcopy in the library.
- Red Herring, "The Case Against the Microsoft Suit"
(April 3 - Jonathan Zittrain)
- Jonathan Zittrain and Austan Goolsbee, Evaluating
the Costs and Benefits of Taxing Internet Commerce, 52 National Tax Journal
413 (1999). This link will take you to the abstract of this paper and a the
page from which you can download the paper itself using Adobe Acrobat.
- National Governors' Association proposal on Internet Taxation, Streamlined Sales Tax System for the 21st Century
- Policy.com briefing, "Will Taxing E-commerce Be a 'Net Gain'?"
- New York Times, "U.S. Panel Can't Agree on Internet Sales Tax" (this March 22, 2000 article from the New York Times requires registration to view; if you don't care to register, you can obviously also access this article on Nexis or in the library)
- Jack Kemp, Governors' Scheme to Tax Internet is Questionable and Unsound
- Browse: National Governors' Association, E-Quality:
Ensuring a Level Playing Field for American Business
- Washington Post, "Proposals Seek Delay of Internet Sales Tax"
- NetWorkFusion.com, "Clinton Calls for Eventual Internet Taxation"
- US Department of the Treasury, Selected Tax Policy Implications of Global Electronic Commerce (November 22, 1996)
(April 5 - Jonathan Zittrain)
- National Journal, "ICANN't
Believe What They're Doing"
- Business Week Online, "What's in a Name?"
- The New York Times, "What's in a Name?" (Jeri Clausing, March 13, 2000) (to be distributed in hard-copy)
- The Tao of IETF -- A Guide for New Attendees of the Internet Engineering Task Force (Humble Beginnings)
- Original Letter from Ralph Nader and James Love to Esther Dyson, June 11, 1999
- Response Letter from Esther Dyson, June 15, 1999
- ICANN Status Report to the Department of Commerce, June 15, 1999
- The Industry Standard, "ICANN: Slow as the Nile"
- Check out the upcoming IPO of coolsavings.com
- United States Department of Commerce, White
Paper: Management of Internet Names and Numbers
- Preliminary Report: Meeting of the ICANN Board in Cairo, 10 March 2000
(April 10 - Jean Camp)
The old media and the new medium co-exist but are converging. Is convergence creative destruction or business evolution? How will convergence change the role of the FCC? How will convergence change the industries? Is the medium the message?
Bob Pepper, FCC
-European Union: The Green Paper
-Defending the Internet Revolution in the Broadband Era: When Doing Nothing is Doing Harm
-This would have been the required reading,
including definitions, history, discussion. Unfortunately the figures do not
load. Still an excellent background.
-The OpenNet Coalition dedicated to open access.
-The local open access org Massachusetts local access.
-H. H. Lalani, Broadband Networks: The First Hundred Feet: The local access network perspective. Outlines stake holders.
-D. Clark, A Taxonomy of Internet Telephony Applications from the Internet Telephony Consortium.
-S. E. Gillett, Technological Change, Market Structure, and Universal Service outlines the principles of the next regime in universal.
-A workshop held by IEEE and Cornell on the Telecom Infrastructure in the Next Decade. Includes four papers describing all the technologies and four scenarios.
(April 12 - Jean Camp)
As part of convergence concerns of universal service become concerns about the 'Digital Divide". The digital divide has global and national components. Coralee Whitcomb is president of CPSR and founder of Virtually Wired - a computing resource center for the homeless. Nolan Bowie is a senior academic and activist in the digital divide issues.
Coralee Whitcomb, Nolan Bowie
-December 1999 issue of imp on Access: Where, Who, How, Why?. All the articles. They are short and light.
-The NTIA reports and sites are available at: Falling
through the Net
-Digital Divide: a PBS special on computer use by gender, race, and class
-Closing the Digital Divide describes efforts, upcoming conferences, and problems in addressing the digital divide.
-A history of Universal Service
-Benton Library on Universal Service
-FCC Universal Service Home Page
-Universal Access Project (UAP)
-Alliance For Public technology
Theses readings on the Global Digital Divide are relevant not only to this
class but also dovetail with the topics of April 17th and 24th:
-Softbank is an effort to close the global digital divide.
-GrameenPhone is trying to bring connectivity to the landless
-ITU Development Sector - Universal Access and Rural Home
(April 17 - Jean Camp)
"How many divisions does the Pope have?" The Catholic Church could had no formal power but has managed to stand as the Soviet Union collapsed. Power comes in many forms in the networked world.
Dean Joseph Nye
-Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Jr.
Power and Interdependence in the Information Age
-JP Barlow, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace
In Cyberspace: Surveillance, Sovereignty, and Hard-Wired Censors
-Tim May, The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto
-Ironically I think the best thing is in text form: The Rise of the Network Society
(April 19 - Jonathan Zittrain)
Conventional Wisdom, circa 1995-1996:
ISPs and Portals: Eyeballs, Eyeballs, Eyeballs (or, Content is King)
- RedHerring.com, "Bursting out of the Garage ... and Onto the Internet" and "Road Map for the Internet"
- Upside.com, "Tim Koogle Defends Yahoo's Outrageous Valuation"
Conventional Wisdom, circa 1997-1998:
B2C: E-commerce Takes Center Stage (or, Sell 'em Stuff)
- RedHerring.com, "Give or Take $100 Billion" and "Electronic Commerce"
- Upside.com, "Diary of a Start-up"
Conventional Wisdom, circa 1999-2000:
B2Bs, Infrastructure Plays, Wireless Devices ... (or, The Road to Profitability is a Must?)
- Forbes, "When Start-ups Become Blow-ups"
- RedHerring.com, "Yahoo and AOL Get Down to Business"
- CNET, "Taking Stock of 1999"
- Fortune, "The B2B Tool that Really Is Changing the World"
- Check out what's happened to the coolsavings.com IPO at any financial services Web site (such as Ragingbull.com, TheStreet.com, ipo.com, etc., or virtually any large portal, such as Yahoo, AOL, Lycos, etc.).
- The 1996 High-Tech Top Value
- The Economist, "Hard Truths for Softbank"
- RedHerring.com, "On-line Shopping Gets Real"
(April 24 - Jean Camp)
The GII is often spoken of as an collection of NIIs. But these NIIs have fundamentally different starting points, and different governments have different conceptions of national telecommunications needs and goals. Three very different perspectives on the NII and governmental tools will be offered by the three guests who view the problems and promises of a GII for developing countries, Europe, and the United States.
- The Computer Systems Policy Project Report on the GII.
Look at category 3, "Social
legal and Regulatory" for papers on global have-nots.
The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action (1993)
The Global Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Cooperation (1995)
A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce (IITF, 1996)
Branscomb and Kahin's Information Infrastructure Project Home Page
United States National Information Infrastructure Virtual Library
GII: Global Information Infrastructure an organization led by Ziff-Davis and it involves a broad alliance of leading global corporations, institutions and individuals.
GIIC - Global Information Infrastructure Commission an initiative of the Center for Strategic and International Studies
(April 26 - Jonathan Zittrain)
- Paul Vixie, MAPS RBL
- Paul Vixie, MAPS RBL Usage
- Getting Into the MAPS RBL
- Getting Off the MAPS RBL
- The Industry Standard, "Spam Watchdog Floats New Service Ideas"
- Larry Lessig in The Industry Standard, "The Spam Wars"
- CNET, "NSI Threatens to Sue Black Hole List Operator"
- New York Times, "In Spam Case, Another Defeat for State Laws"
- ZDNET, "Spam
Hits the House of Representatives"
- CNET, "Opposed Groups Agree on Anti-Spam Strategy"
(May 1 - Jean Camp)
1. Tomas, Carlos, Sandra, Eduardo, Gilberto, Samuel
2. Greg, Raefer, Helen
3. Tony, Yoshi, Ben, JW, Oscar
4. Mark, Biao, Simone, Yimei, Jing
5. Thomas, Andy, Marcela, Alina, Kalama, Cui
6. Emma, Serena, Beth, Mark, Rima
(May 3 - Jean Camp)
1. Ron, Roanak, Amy, David, Terry, Nereus (4:07 - 4:22)
2. Sohil, Jonathan, Peter, Sipho (4:24 - 4:39)
3. Jennifer, Norman, Tony (4:41 - 4:56)
4. Phil, Emy, Justin, Kelvin (4:58 - 5:13)
5. Parul, Joe, Rachel, Yehuda (5:15 - 5:30)