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    Welcome to Openlaw on Open DVD.

    The Openlaw/DVD forum is an open public forum developing arguments to challenge publishers' assertions of absolute control over digital media. The forum was established to help the defense of the web publishers who posted DeCSS code, a step toward enabling the viewing of DVDs on all platforms. We have since broadened focus to general discussion of challenges to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's imposition of "access controls" and enforcement of "copy controls" that may too easily become limitations on the use of copyrighted material.

    Background: We offer a roadmap to the DeCSS cases, the dvd-discuss FAQ, and more information collected on the resources page. Bruce Bell's The Coming Storm and John Gilmore's What's Wrong With Copy Protection describe some of the threats the DMCA poses to open source and free software.

    The inflexible controls of CSS prevent people who have legitimately purchased disks in DVD format from making full use of those works. Without licensed DVD players for Linux and other operating systems, an entire class of computer users is completely cut off from viewing DVDs. CSS prevents many fair uses of the DVD works even on "supported" systems. DeCSS describes the operation of CSS so as to facilitate the creation of software DVD viewers for Linux and to expand the possible uses of DVDs. Yet rather than welcoming these potential additional viewers, the industry appears to fear that permitting broader interoperability of its format would weaken its monopoly on player devices.

    The Electronic Frontier Foundation and Stanford Law School Dean Kathleen M. Sullivan represented web publisher 2600 Magazine and Emmanuel Goldstein when they were sued by the movie industry for posting DeCSS code, allegedly to break the encryption access controls on DVDs. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the Southern District of New York opinion barring 2600 Magazine from posting or linking to DeCSS code. In the California trade secret case, however, the appeals court has reversed an injunction on the posting of DeCSS, stating that the code is speech protected by the First Amendment. The California court also ruled against the DVD Copy Control Association in its bid to haul out-of-state developers to trial in California.

    We believe the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's anticircumvention provisions stifle free speech and competition in the production and dissemination of audiovisual materials. The total access controls imposed by CSS prevent fair use of the materials, hampering our ability to comment, criticize, discuss, or build upon works published on DVD. The injunctions also block First-Amendment-protected expression in and about the DeCSS program and discussion of access control systems.

    We have been using to use the Openlaw forum to develop arguments, evidence, and strategy to assist the defense. The most active discussions have been on the mailing list
    The new TWiki web is another place you can contribute arguments. Please join us!
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  • California Supreme Court Hears Bunnner Trade Secret Case, May 29, 2003

    The appeals court below had ruled that Bunner's publication of DeCSS was protected by the First Amendment, reversing the trial court's injunction.
  • Wired News: Calif. Reviews DVD Code Case
  • CNet Arguments made in DVD-cracking case
  • California High Court Hears Clash of Speech, Trade Secrets Law

    2600 Magazine Files for Rehearing by Second Circuit En Banc, January 14, 2002; Second Circuit Denies Rehearing

    Because of the tremendous import of the decision and its conflicts with Supreme Court precedent, 2600 Magazine has asked the entire Second Circuit Court of Appeals to review the panel decision in Universal v. Reimerdes. "Free speech principles should turn not upon newly minted distinctions between pen-and-ink and point-and-click," say EFF and lead counsel Kathleen M. Sullivan, Dean of Stanford Law School.

    Petition for Rehearing En Banc
    2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion In N.Y. DeCSS Case, Newsbytes, Jan. 14, 2002

    Second Circuit Affirms Decision Against 2600, Nov. 28, 2001

    The Second Circuit Court of Appeals has affirmed Judge Kaplan's decision that 2600 Magazine violated the DMCA by posting DeCSS code. Opinion available in HTML and PDF versions thanks to Cryptome and Declan McCullagh.

    Court upholds ban on DVD-cracking code, CNet, Nov. 28, 2001
    2 Copyright Cases Decided in Favor of Entertainment Industry, New York Times, Nov. 29, 2001
    Copyright Law Foes Lose Big, Wired News, Nov. 29, 2001

    On the same day, the New Jersey District Court dismissed Prof. Felten's DMCA challenge against the RIAA, SDMI, and the U.S. Government. The court found no case or controversy because the RIAA had withdrawn its threat to sue.
    Court dismisses free-speech lawsuit, CNet, Nov. 29, 2001

    Bunner Wins Reversal of California Trade Secret Injunction, Nov. 1, 2001

    Holding that DeCSS code is "pure speech" that must not be subjected to prior restraint, the California appeals court lifted the preliminary injunction on Andrew Bunner's publication of DeCSS. In DVDCCA v. Bunner, the DVD Copy Control Association asserted that Bunner and 500 John Does misappropriated its trade secrets by publishing DeCSS.
    DVDCCA's statutory right to protect its economically valuable trade secret is not an interest that is "more fundamental" than the First Amendment right to freedom of speech or even on equal footing with the national security interests and other vital governmental interests that have previously been found insufficient to justify a prior restraint. Our respect for the Legislature and its enactment of the UTSA cannot displace our duty to safeguard the rights guaranteed by the First Amendment. Accordingly, we are compelled to reverse the preliminary injunction.

    Programmer Indicted for Circumvention Conspiracy, August 28, 2001

    Dmitry Sklyarov and his employer, Elcom, were indicted on 5 counts of providing, marketing, and conspiring to provide and market technology to circumvent the encryption of Adobe eBooks. The case is the first criminal indictment under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's anticircumvention provision.
    EFF Press Release
    Government Agrees to Defer Prosecution of Sklyarov, December 13, 2001

    California Appeals Court Rules Pavlovich Can Be Sued in California, August 7, 2001

    On writ of mandate from the California Supreme Court, the Sixth Appellate Court ruled that California has jurisdiction over Pavlovich's alleged misuse of the DVDCCA's trade secrets.

    Out-of-state resident can be sued in DVD case, CNet, August 7, 2001

    Programmer Arrested for "Trafficking" in Circumvention Program

    Dmitry Sklyarov, a Russian Ph.D. student in the United States to give a presentation on the security flaws in Adobe's eBook technology, was arrested and charged with criminal violation of the DMCA. His arrest sparked nationwide and international protests, leading Adobe to retract the complaint that sparked the government's interest. Sklyarov has recently been released from prison on $50,000 bail.
    Jail Time in the Digital Age, Lawrence Lessig, NY Times op-ed July 30, 2001
    EFF's U.S. v. Sklyarov FAQ

    Princeton Scientist and Research Team Sue for Declaration that Their Research Does Not Violate the DMCA

    Princeton professor Ed Felten and the team of researchers who examined watermarking technologies at SDMI's invitation in the HackSDMI challenge have filed suit against SDMI, RIAA, Verance, and the federal government after being forced to withdraw their paper from a spring conference. The suit, supported by the EFF, challenges the DMCA's chilling effect on scientific research, and private parties' broad invocation of the law to silence discussion of flaws in their products.
    EFF Press Release, June 6, 2001
    Amended Complaint, June 26, 2001
    Justice Department Motion to Dismiss, Sept. 25, 2001

    Hearing on Pavlovich Jurisdictional Challenge, June 12, 2001

    Attorneys for Matt Pavlovich argue that the Texas resident may not be sued in California on the DVD-CCA's trade secret case. DVD-CCA sued him along with numerous other defendants, claiming all were illegally publishing a trade secret of the copy-control association -- DeCSS.

    Parties to Universal v. Reimerdes Submit Supplemental Briefs on First Amendment Questions, May 30, 2001

    The parties filed letter briefs responding to the Second Circuit's post-hearing questions May 30.
  • Appellant 2600's letter brief
  • Appellee studios' letter brief
    Openlaw participants suggested arguments in the TWiki web.

    DeCSS Appeal Argued May 1, 2001

    2600 Magazine asked the Second Circuit Court of Appeals to preserve fair use of digital media and the First Amendment protections for the expressive nature of code by holding that its posting of DeCSS code does not violate the anticircumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Stanford Law School Dean Kathleen M. Sullivan argued for 2600 in the case, which tests the balance of copyright with free speech and the public domain. Participants in the Berkman Center's Openlaw forum submitted an amicus brief supporting 2600 in the district court and assisted amici in the appeals briefing.

    2600 has posted audio recordings of the oral argument in several formats
    Unofficial transcripts are now available from EFF and Cryptome.

  • EFF Files Reply Brief on Appeal, March 19, 2001

    EFF's reply concludes the briefing on appeal of Universal v. Reimerdes.

    a complete set of earlier briefs and documents from Universal v. Reimerdes is indexed here

  • Brief of Amici Curiae in Support of Appellees and Affirmance of the Judgment Below, Feb. 27, 2001

    Amici for MPAA: Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA); American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada (AFM); American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA); American Film Marketing Association (AFMA); American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP); Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI); American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP); Association of American Publishers (AAP); Business Software Alliance (BSA); Directors Guild of America, Inc. (DGA); Graphic Artists Guild; Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA); National Association of theater Owners (NATO); National Cable Television Association, Inc. (NCTA); National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA); National Football League and National Football League Properties, Inc. (NFL); National Hockey League (NHL); National Music Publishers' Association (NMPA); office of the Commissioner of Baseball; Producers Guild of America (PGA); Professional Photographers of America (PPA); Reed Elsevier, Inc.; Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA); Screen Actors Guild, Inc. (SAG); Software & Information Industry Association (SIAA); and Writers Guild of America, West, Inc. (WGA)

  • NFL, musicians urge court to uphold DeCSS ruling, CNet, Feb. 28, 2001

  • Studios Respond to 2600's Appeal, Feb. 20, 2001

    The Studios urge that Kaplan's decision is correct in every respect (if perhaps too solicitous of appellee's speech arguments) and should be upheld on appeal. They think they're being clever in the footnotes.

    Thanks again to Cryptome for putting these materials online.

  • Government Weighs in Against 2600, Feb. 20, 2001

    The Federal government has been permitted to intervene in Universal v. Reimerdes and filed this brief with the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. According to the U.S. Attorney's office, the DMCA's anticircumvention provision raises no First Amendment concerns, neither because DeCSS is expressive nor because 1201 effectively shuts off fair use of digital media. "[T]his lawsuit is really about computer hackers and the tools of digital piracy."

  • Studios prepare for appeals court in DVD case, Reuters, Feb. 22, 2001
  • White House Sides With Studios, Wired News, Feb. 22, 2001
  • DOJ stands with film industry in DVD cracking case, CNet, Feb. 22, 2001
  • DOJ Backs Movie Studios in DeCSS Case, Feb. 24, 2001

  • Government Moves to Intervene in Universal v. Reimerdes, Feb. 8, 2001

    2d Cir. Court of Appeals Docket #: 00-9185 (see entries for Feb. 8). The Assistant U.S. Attorney moved for leave both to file a brief and to participate in oral argument.
    The studios' briefs on appeal are due Tuesday, Feb. 20, 2001.

  • Numerous Amici File Briefs in Support of 2600, January 26, 2001

    Briefs: News:
    DeCSS Allies Ganging Up, Declan McCullagh, Wired News
    Free-speech issues underlie DVD-code appeal, Lisa Bowman, CNet
    Battle Lines Harden Over Net Copyright, John Borland, CNet

  • 2600 Appeals DeCSS Decision to Second Circuit, January 19, 2001

    On behalf of 2600 Magazine, the EFF filed its appeal brief with the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. The appeal challenges the injunction issued by Judge Lewis Kaplan as an unconstitutional restriction of speech and on the press -- because it denies fair use of "technologically protected" media and because it prohibits publication of and linking to computer code on the ground that others might misuse that speech. Numerous amici will file briefs supporting 2600 next week.

  • EFF Press Release
  • 2600's Appeal Brief

  • California Appellate Court Stays Proceedings Against Pavlovich, January 18, 2001

    Responding to an order from the California Supreme Court, a California Appellate Court ordered the DVDCCA to show cause why it should be permitted to sue LiViD developer Matt Pavlovich, a Texas resident, in California on its trade secret claims. The court ordered proceedings stayed in the meantime.

  • California Supreme Court to Hear Jurisdictional Challenges to DVDCCA Suit, December 15, 2000

    The California Supreme Court granted Matt Pavlovich's petition for review, giving the Texas resident the opportunity to argue that he should not be forced to defend the suit in California. Derek Fawcus, a British national living in Scotland, has a similar motion to quash pending.

  • article, December 19, 2000
  • Pavlovich Motion to Quash, 8/2/00
  • Fawcus Motion to Quash, 11/14/00

  • 1201(a)(1) Takes Effect, October 28, 2000

    Excepting censorware blacklists and damaged access controls (see below), circumvention of access controls is now prohibited. Circumvention of copy controls is still covered only by traditional copyright infringement.

    Copyright Office Backs Ban on Code-Breaking Software, New York Times, October 30, 2000

  • Copyright Office Issues Rulemaking on Exemptions from Anticircumvention, October 26, 2000

    The Librarian of Congress, on the recommendation of the Register of Copyrights, has announced the classes of works subject to the exemption from the prohibition on circumvention of technological measures that control access to copyrighted works. The two classes of works are:

    1. Compilations consisting of lists of websites blocked by filtering software applications; and
    2. Literary works, including computer programs and databases, protected by access control mechanisms that fail to permit access because of malfunction, damage or obsolescence.
    Complete Recommendation of the Register of Copyrights and Determination of the Librarian of Congress, 65 FR 64555, October 27, 2000: PDF or text

  • Federal Trade Commission Hosts Workshop on Warranty Protection for High-Tech Products and Services, October 26-27, 2000

    The workshop considers the issues raised by license, rather than sale, of software, and the use of shrinkwrap or clickwrap licenses with broad disclaimers of warranty.

  • Valenti v. Lessig: A Debate on the Future of Intellectual Property, Oct. 1 -- Archive now online

    MPAA head Jack Valenti and Stanford Law Professor Larry Lessig faced off in a debate on the future of intellectual property online. Valenti argued that unauthorized use of copyrighted material was "theft," while Lessig urged a return to the American framers' limited concept of the copyright monopoly. Will content control or the public commons prevail?

    Read the background to the debate or view the webcast archive.

  • Defendant Jeraimee Hughes Files Motion to Dismiss in Connecticut Action, Sept. 21

    Hughes argues that the movie studios' case should be dismissed because only the DVD-CCA has standing to sue to protect the CSS mechanism -- the studios have no authority to grant or deny circumvention. The brief also argues that the CSS scheme does not fall within 1201(a)'s "access control" provisions.

    Kaplan Enjoins 2600 from Posting, Linking to DeCSS

    Opinion and Final Judgment (HTML), Aug. 17, 2000

    Emmanuel Goldstein's Response and non-hyperlinked list of DeCSS sites

    Opinion: Conclusion

    In the final analysis, the dispute between these parties is simply put if not necessarily simply resolved.

    Plaintiffs have invested huge sums over the years in producing motion pictures in reliance upon a legal framework that, through the law of copyright, has ensured that they will have the exclusive right to copy and distribute those motion pictures for economic gain. They contend that the advent of new technology should not alter this long established structure.

    Defendants, on the other hand, are adherents of a movement that believes that information should be available without charge to anyone clever enough to break into the computer systems or data storage media in which it is located. Less radically, they have raised a legitimate concern about the possible impact on traditional fair use of access control measures in the digital era.

    Each side is entitled to its views. In our society, however, clashes of competing interests like this are resolved by Congress. For now, at least, Congress has resolved this clash in the DMCA and in plaintiffs' favor. Given the peculiar characteristics of computer programs for circumventing encryption and other access control measures, the DMCA as applied to posting and linking here does not contravene the First Amendment. Accordingly, plaintiffs are entitled to appropriate injunctive and declaratory relief.


    Assessing Linking Liability, Carl S. Kaplan, New York Times, 9/8
    Library System Terrorizes Publishing Industry, Ruben Bolling, Salon, 8/24
    Hollywood to Home Viewer: We Own You, Rob Pegoraro, Washington Post, 8/25
    Whose Intellectual Property Is It, Anyway? The Open Source War, Peter Wayner, New York Times
    DVD Toy For Rich Techies, Peter Lewis, New York Times
    DeCSS trial wrap up, Deborah Durham-Vichr, Linux World
    Only News That's Fit to Link, Declan McCullagh, Wired News
    DVD piracy code still online in Australia, ZDNET / MSNBC
    Studios Score DeCSS Victory, Declan McCullagh, Wired News
    In DVD Case, Judge Rules That Computer Code Can Be Regulated, AP
    Ban on Posting DVD Codes; Judge: Web site guilty of 'stealing', Rita Ciolli, Newsday
    Movie Studios Score DVD Victory, Mark Hamblett, New York Law Journal
    Judge Backs Studios in DVD Movie Case, David Streitfeld, Washington Post
    DeCSS Judge: Code Isn't Free Speech, Damien Cave,
    Movie Industry Wins a Round in DVD Copyright Case, John Sullivan, New York Times
    Judge halts posting of DVD cracking code, John Borland, CNET
    Judge in DVD-Hacker Trial Rules in Favor of Movie Studios, Greg Lindsay, Inside
    Wall Street Journal
    DVD Hacker Case Ruling Sets Shocking Precedent, Peter Coffee, ZDNet eWeek

    The trial tested the scope and constitutionality of the DMCA's anticircumvention provisions, as Judge Kaplan was asked to decide whether 2600 Magazine's posting of DeCSS, a program that descrambles the files on DVDs, violates Section 1201 of the Act. The plaintiff movie studios claimed that DeCSS illegally circumvents their discs' access controls. The defense challenged the studios' assertion of an absolute right to control the manner in which movies are played, arguing that DeCSS enables fair use of DVD media and facilitates the playing of movies on unsupported operating systems. The DMCA's "access control" should not become a use control restricting the viewing of digital media.

    EFF Defense Team Files Closing Brief, Aug. 8

    In their post-trial brief submitted to Judge Lewis Kaplan Tuesday, defendants argue that the Digital Millennium Copyright Act ("DMCA") cannot constitutionally limit fair use by denying to the public the tools needed to exercise that right. The First Amendment demands that a fair use defense be read into the statute or that its anticircumvention provision be struck. Moreover, the anticircumvention provision is an unconstitutional burden on the protected speech of DeCSS itself.

    The eight movie studios argue, in a brief that paints over the constitutional questions, that an injunction against 2600's posting of DeCSS is necessary to preserve their intellectual property from piracy. Both sides now await Judge Kaplan's decision.

    News reports: Washington Post, CNET, New York Law Journal.

    Trial Testimony, July 17-25

    At the end of trial testimony, Judge Lewis Kaplan concluded that DeCSS is expressive speech protected by the First Amendment, whether in source code or an executable binary. In post-trial briefs, the EFF-led defense will urge him to find that the First Amendment does not permit him to enjoin distribution of the code and thatthe DMCA does not give copyright holders unlimited latitude to prevent fair uses of their works.

    Day 1 -- Monday, July 17: Opening Arguments, Plaintiffs' witness Michael Shamos. [transcript].
    Monday's News Reports: Reuters, Wired News, ZDNet News, New York Times, Industry Standard, Associated Press, Newsday, NPR (audio), USA Today. Photos from Declan McCullagh (more), NY Law Journal, EFF Update.
    NY Linux Users' Group Protest

    Day 2 -- Tuesday, July 18: Defense witness Frank Andrew Stevenson; plaintiffs' witness Robert W. Schumann. [transcript].
    News: Wired News, Salon, Industry Standard,, EFF Update.

    Day 3 -- Wednesday, July 19: Plaintiffs' witnesses Marsha King (Time Warner VP) and Franklin Fisher (economist). [transcript].
    News: KCRW (audio), Wired News, Newsday, EFF Update.

    Day 4 -- Thursday, July 20: Defense witness Jon Johansen; plaintiffs' witness Mikhail Reider (MPAA anti-piracy); defense witness Edward Felten; defendant Emmanuel Goldstein. [transcript].
    News: New York Times,, Heise (German), EFF Update.

    Day 5 -- Friday, July 21: Defendant Emmanuel Goldstein; defense witnesses Matt Pavlovich, Larry Peterson, Peter Ramadge. [transcript].
    News: Associated Press, Newsday, Arnold Reinhold, The Register, Linuxworld, EFF Update.

    Court Recessed Monday

    Day 6 -- Tuesday, July 25: Defense witnesses Chris DiBona, Andrew Appel, Michael Einhorn, David Touretzky, Ole Craig. Touretzky's DeCSS Gallery was a highlight. [transcript].
    News: NY Times, Associated Press,, Industry Standard,, EFF Update

    Trial Concluded: brief summary; EFF summary

    Attorneys to submit briefs August 8 addressing (1) the efficacy or futility of an injunction; (2) Summers v. Tice on allocation of the harm among multiple ripper utilities and burden of proof; (3) evidentiary issues on the extent to which Kaplan can conclude from hearsay that decoded DVDs are available over the Internet. Briefs may also include other legal arguments.

    News Analyses:

    Free Speech Rights for Computer Code?, Amy Harmon, New York Times, 7/31
    Fate of Hackers' Hero Now in Judge's Hands, Jeff Howe, Village Voice, 8/2
    Clash Over DVD Control May Shape How You Use Media, Rita Ciolli, Newsday, 7/16
    Sidebars: Jack Valenti, Eric Corley
    DVD Case Will Test Reach of Digital Copyright Law, Carl S. Kaplan, New York Times, 7/14

    The EFF, which has been coordinating the DeCSS defenses, held a press briefing Friday, July 14. A panel Friday afternoon discussed DeCSS and the DMCA as part of 2600's H2K conference.

    Other documents and resources from Universal v. Corley.

  • Copyright Office Accepts Comments on First Sale and Archival Copying Post-DMCA, reply comments due Sept. 5

    SUMMARY: The United States Copyright Office and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration invited interested parties to submit comments on the effects of the amendments made by title 1 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, (``DMCA'') and the development of electronic commerce on the operation of sections 109 and 117 of title 17, United States Code, and the relationship between existing and emerging technology and the operation of such sections.

    Several Openlaw/DVD participants submitted comments, including Robert S. Thau & Bryan W. Taylor, John M. Zulauf, Ken Arromdee, and Bryan W. Taylor.

  • Judge Kaplan Denies Motion for Recusal, July 17, 2000

    Before beginning trial on the merits, Kaplan denied 2600's motion requesting the Judge's recusal (see also Garbus affidavit).

  • MPAA expert creates a DivX ;-), June 30, 2000

    Michael Shamos claims to have wended his way through the complex process of creating a DivX ;-) (and he can't even get the name right) copy of a movie and trading it online. See for yourself, and offer criticsm and questions to ask Shamos, on the dvd-discuss list.
    The Napsterization of Movies, Wall Street Journal/MSNBC; Internet Movie Pirates Gain Access to New Technology, NPR

  • Openlaw Participants File Amicus Brief on Hyperlinking Injunction, May 30, 2000

    Openlaw participants have filed an amicus brief in Universal v. Reimerdes, the New York case brought by eight motion picture studios against We argue that the studios' proposed motion to enjoin 2600 from linking to DeCSS would work an extraordinary prior restraint on speech in violation of the First Amendment.

  • Deposition Transcripts Now Online

    Thanks to John Young's Cryptome, we now have the first sets of deposition transcripts online: Jack Valenti (MPAA), Robert W. Schumann (technical expert), Kenneth Jacobsen (MPAA anti-piracy chief), Fritz Attaway (MPAA general counsel).

    Kaplan refused to keep transcripts and video off the Internet in response to plaintiffs' motion for a protective order, saying that plaintiffs' witnesses could "take care of themselves" to prevent embarassment, but declined to open depositions to members of the press. Read defendants' opposition, letters, press motions to intervene, transcripts, and Kaplan's order.

  • Prof. Charles Nesson Files Amicus Brief, May 10, 2000

    Berkman Center Director Charles Nesson's amicus brief argues that bypassing access controls cannot constitutionally be called circumvention when it is necessary to enable fair use of access-controlled material. To enable that constitutionally-mandated fair use, the law must also permit the distribution of bypass devices, such as DeCSS.

  • Copyright's Commons Files Reply Comment (PDF) in Anticircumvention Rulemaking, March 31, 2000

    With contributions from participants here, Copyright's Commons filed a reply comment with the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress in its rulemaking on exemptions from the Digital Millennium Copyright Act's anticircumvention provision. Concerned that "access control devices" could too easily become use limitations, the comment urged the Office to grant a broad exemption for the circumvention of any devices that control use of works along with access to them.

    Feel free to send additional suggestions to the mailing list. The discussion board linked from "brainstorm" requires you to register and receive a password. Use guest, guest for interim access. Send administrative questions to

  • Wendy Seltzer
    Berkman Center for Internet & Society