Glossary

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Contents

A

advertorial 
is an advertisement written in the form of an objective opinion editorial, and presented in a printed publication — usually designed to look like a legitimate and independent news story. (via Wikipedia)
ad network 
there are several organizations working to aggregate ad sales for a number of blogs or other Web-native publications. Well-known examples include BlogHer, Blogads, and Glam.
aggregation 
the collection of linked content from disparate sources onto one web site or page. Collection can be automated or user generated (see social aggregation).
amateur 
part of the great "Who is a journalist?" debate. Those who believe in the importance of "professional" journalism argue that unpaid and/or untrained authors cannot do serious journalism.
Application Programming Interface (API) 
a source code interface that an operating system or library provides to support requests for services to be made of it by computer programs.[1] The software that provides the functionality described by an API is said to be an implementation of the API. The API itself is abstract, in that it specifies an interface and the behavior of the identifiers specified in that interface, it does not specify how the behavior might be implemented. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Api
accidental journalism 
Coverage of events by citizens who are recording them not to provide coverage but for their own more personal reasons. (Weinberger, http://www.hyperorg.com/blogger/2008/01/29/accidental-journalism/)
automated journalism 
any of a number of experimental techniques to use computers to generate journalism, from writing text news to generating online video newscasts with virtual anchors. See UpTick for an example.
attention economy 
The concept of the attention economy is generally attributed to Herbert Simon who wrote in 1971 “...in an information-rich world, the wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes. What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it.” “Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World," Martin Greenberger, Computers, Communication, and the Public Interest, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1971. p. 40-41.

B

Behavioral targeting or behavioural targeting 
a technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns.
Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual's web-browsing behavior, such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made, to select which advertisements to display to that individual. Practitioners believe this helps them deliver their online advertisements to the users who are most likely to be influenced by them.
Behavioral marketing can be used on its own or in conjunction with other forms of targeting based on factors like geography, demographics or the surrounding content.
Examples of behavioural targeting in advertising targeting systems include: nugg.ad, AdLINK 360, Boomerang, DoubleClick, and WunderLoop
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavioral_marketing
Big J journalism 
Mainstream, traditional, professional journalism. May be positive, neutral or derogatory, depending on context and the attitude of the speaker.
Blog 
Form of website with features including short, informal stories/entries known as "posts"; first-person voice; extensive linkin; and presentation of stories/posts in reverse chronological order.
Blogosphere
The information space represented by blogs in aggregate, often also a particular subset of blogs, e.g. "the right-wing blogosphere," or "the Francophone blogosphere."
bridge blog 
Bridge blog is a term coined by Global Voices co-founded Ethan Zuckerman to describe blogs that aimed to make citizen media from one country or culture accessible to audiences in another, through any combination of linguistic translation, excerpting, summarizing and annotating.

C

Citizen
Civic media 
any form of communication that strengthens the social bonds within a community or creates a strong sense of civic engagement among its residents. Civic media goes beyond news gathering and reporting. MIT Center for Future Civic Media
comment thread 
Communication Decency Act (CDA) 
content 
The information that a website presents to its audience (as opposed to code or design structures). Can include writing, photos, video, audio, maps, graphs or other creative media. Can be original or not, generated by users (See UGC)or controlled by the website's creators.
Content Management System (CMS) 
a system used to manage the content of a Web site.[1] Content management systems are deployed primarily for interactive use by a potentially large number of contributors. For example, the software for the website Wikipedia is based on a wiki, which is a particular type of content management system. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system
List of CMS’s: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_content_management_systems
Community news site 
(get definition from U Missouri study)
Crowdsource 
a term coined in Wired magazine in 2006, originally in the context of business, for a “process where businesses faced with tough challenges don't try to come up with all of the answers themselves, instead tapping into “the collective wisdom of millions of amateurs around the world to come up with a solution.” In journalism, crowdsourcing refers to any number of techniques that support complex original reporting drawing on many low-levelvoluntary contributions by people, more frequently without journalism training or other special expertise.
Crowdfund
Custom publishing 
the creation of publications, usually resembling glossy magazines, on behalf of non-media customers as marketing or customer-loyalty vehicles.

D

Daily Me
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 
discovery 

E

echo chamber
editor 
editorial content 
All non-advertising content in a publication or broadcast.
E-media 
online media (see http://www.foliomag.com/2008/opening-cm-show-keynote-stresses-audience-king "Pazour ran down a list of e-media 'pure play' companies, including Light Reading, Mediabistro and Tech Target, that—unlike magazine publishers—have taken the reins and are 'eating our lunch.'"
enterprise reporting 

F

Feed
Folksonomy 
A means of classifying and categorizing data on the web through collaborative efforts from the online community. This is more commonly known as (though not strictly synonymous to) ‘tagging’. http://www.brownbatterystudios.com/sixthings/2006/02/24/a-quick-web-20-glossary/
Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging , social classification, social indexing, social tagging, and other names) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing, metadata is not only generated by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually, freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary.[1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy
Free

H

hyperlocal 
homophily 

I

interactive
institutional journalism 
Used to refer to both old and new media enterprises that are produced by an organization rather than an individual. Often used to describe what is needed to complement blogs, new institutions that will be more flexible and nimble than existing traditional media outlets, but have more structure and more editorial oversight than personal or all-audience contributed sites, resulting in journalism with consistency and breadth that one person or a little-coordinated group of individuals can produce.

J

journalism 
producing, collecting or distributing materials based on information that is true and currently relevant to society with the intent to inform, educate or engage an audience.

K

keyword 
a word or concept with special significance, in particular any word used as the key to a code or used in a reference work to link to other words or other information. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyword

L

link journalism 
Linking to outside sources from a news article, including other news articles from various organization. Implies that the author has read the article, assimilated the knowledge, and understands how it fits in his / her current piece. http://publishing2.com/2008/05/22/new-york-times-embraces-link-journalism/


M

microjournalism
microblog, microblogging 
moblog, moblogging 
MoJo 
Short for "mobile journalism" Reuters project to equip correspondents with video production and uplink capacity based on a Nokia mobile phone.
MSM/Mainstream Media 
News organizations that are rooted in the pre-internet era. Can include newspapers, magazines, wire services and broadcasters - both large and small, commercial and not-for-profit.

N

networked journalism 
new media 
news 
newshole 
natural language processing (NLP) 
various attempts to use artificial intelligence to process natural language, including speech synthesis, speech recognition, natural language understanding and generation and machine translation.

O

Online

P

participatory media
placeblog 
personal media
professional
public media 
Public media are projects and behaviors that address and mobilize publics, within any media. Some media are designed for this purpose (prestige journalism, public broadcasting), while others may do that occasionally (commercial television and radio, blogs). Center for Social Media at American University
pure play 
Organizations that specialize do only thing are often called pure play - in media it may mean those that are only online: "Pazour ran down a list of e-media 'pure play' companies, including Light Reading, Mediabistro and Tech Target, that—unlike magazine publishers—have taken the reins and are 'eating our lunch.'" http://www.foliomag.com/2008/opening-cm-show-keynote-stresses-audience-king

R

reverse publish 
Many citizen media sites actually turn their web content into a print publication, a process called reverse publishing.

S

SEO (search engine optimization)
serendipity
shovelware 
silo effect
SMS (short message service) 
Social bookmarking 
a method for Internet users to store, organize, search, and manage bookmarks of web pages on the Internet with the help of metadata. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_bookmarking
Social hack 
a modification of human behavior, rather than of technology, in order to create a new product or process. Contrasts with "technical hack."
SoJo 
Solo journalist
Social Aggregation 
the collection of linked content onto a web site or page by a community of users, who often rank and comment on the content. Examples of popular social aggregation sites are Digg and Reddit.
soft launch
spot news 
reporting on fast-breaking time-sensitive events, also called hard news.

T

tag 
tag cloud 

U

User 
someone who visits and engages with a particular website
User-generated content (frequently abbreviated UGC) 
text, audio, video materials posted to a website by someone not involved in setting up the site.

V

video blog, vlog 
a weblog whose entries are online videos rather than text.

X

Xenophilia 
the love of that which is foreign. Used by Ethan Zuckerman to contrast with homophily.

Websites and other Applications, Services, Networks

Current TV 
an Emmy award winning independent media company led by former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, and businessman Joel Hyatt. The cable television network went on the air at midnight EDT (4:00 UTC) on the morning of August 1, 2005. A second network, operated in the United Kingdom and Ireland started its operation March 12, 2007 for Sky and Virgin Media subscribers.
Current features "pods", or short programs, of which 30% are created by viewers and users.
Users (called VC2 Producers) contribute three-to-seven-minute "pods", which are usually documentary in nature. The content is filtered by registered users on Current's website through a voting process. VC2 makes up a portion of the content aired on the channel. Users can also create Viewer Created Ad Messages, or V-CAMs and Current TV promos which are small promotions for either Current TV or the general topic of VC2. The channel has exclusive rights over viewer-submitted segments, but not copyright ownership.
Google provides hourly updates on popular web searches branded as Google Current. Current formerly had a business relationship with Yahoo! to supply video "channels" to The Yahoo! Current Network
Additional content is purchased by the channel through commercial methods.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current.tv

Del.icio.us 
Pronounced "delicious," the website is a social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks. The site was founded by Joshua Schachter in late 2003, and was acquired by Yahoo! in 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Del.icio.us
Digg 
a community-based popularity website with an emphasis on technology and science articles, recently expanding to a broader range of categories such as politics and entertainment. It combines social bookmarking, blogging, and syndication with a form of non-hierarchical, democratic editorial control.
News stories and websites are submitted by users, and then promoted to the front page through a user-based ranking system. This differs from the hierarchical editorial system that many other news sites employ.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digg

Drupal 
open-source content management system.
Flickr 
a photo sharing website and web services suite, and an online community platform. It was one of the earliest Web 2.0 applications. In addition to being a popular Web site for users to share personal photographs, the service is widely used by bloggers as a photo repository. Its popularity has been fueled by its innovative online community tools that allow photos to be tagged and browsed by folksonomic means. It hosts over 2 billion images.[1][2][3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flickr
reddit 
a social news website where users can post links to content on the web. Other users may then vote the posted links up or down, causing them to appear more or less prominently on the reddit home page.
The site has discussion areas where users may discuss the posted links, and vote for or against others' comments. When there are enough votes against a given comment, it will not be displayed by default, although a reader can display it through a link or preference. Users who submit articles which other users like and subsequently "vote up" receive "karma" points as a reward for submitting interesting articles. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reddit.com
Twitter 
a free social networking and micro-blogging service that allows users to send "updates" (or "tweets"; text-based posts, up to 140 characters long) to the Twitter website, via short message service, instant messaging, or a third-party application such as Twitterrific. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter
WordPress.com 
Free WordPress-powered weblog hosting from company Automattic. It opened to beta testers on August 8, 2005 and opened to the public on November 21, 2005. It runs WordPress MU, a version of the original software that allows people to create and manage their own weblogs without requiring the time, money and technical knowledge involved in setting up WordPress on an ordinary hosting account. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WordPress.com

new list of tags with definitions

structure

  • nonprofit [meaning fundamental legal structure, not company that is not yet making $]
  • public_media
  • FAILED
  • commercial

funding model

  • ad_supported
  • grant_supported [some but not all non-profits]
  • vc_funded

Focus of news

  • hyperlocal [covers smaller geographic area than the nearest daily paper/mainstream news program]
  • information_based [i.e., data more than news, Everyblock, Backyard Post, etc.]
  • [location] area (describes location focus)
  • local [not bigger than the coverage area of a daily paper]
  • niche (hyperlocal in terms of content, i.e. human rights, media, middle-east)
  • news_secondary [could be primarily entertainment, or information or social or whatever e.g. Vocalo, Backyard Post, maybe FresnoFamous?] - may overlap with information_based or nice

location of news

  • multinational_news
  • national (other)
  • national (US)
  • aggregator
  • audience_generated [bulk of content is created by users, including ones that are not vetted]
  • big_media [mainstream media company investment, ownership, or initiated]
  • commercial [for-profit]

Source of Content

  • original_reporting [again, could be volunteer, pro, edited, audience-generated, and heavily link-based or whatever, as long as it’s adding more value than just summarizing/pointing, i.e., synthesizing multiple sources counts]
  • pro_am [refers only to a mix of paid/unpaid trained/untrained editorial staff, NOT about whether business manager, ad sales folks are pros or paid]
  • social_media
  • volunteer_authors
  • [little, some, majority] audience-generated content REPLACES audience-contributed, audience-generated
  • [little, some, majority] from [source] (describes the source of much content) [need to figure out to standardize - PM]

presentation of news

  • user_curated
  • edited [selection of articles controlled by humans with special status normally indicates publisher model, could be pro, volunteer, mix]
  • multinational_audience
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